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 Introduction

 
East Azarbayjan or East Azarbayjan is located in the northwest of the country, bordering Armenia and the Republic of Azarbayjan, and the provinces of Ardabil, West Azarbayjan, and Zanjan. Its capital is Tabriz.
The population of East Azarbayjan is estimated around 3,603,456 people in 2009.
East Azarbayjan covers an area of 45,650 km² . The 19 counties in this province are summarized as : Ahar, Ajabshir, Bostan Abad, Bonab, Tabriz, Jolfa, Sarab, Shabestar, Kaleybar, Maragha, Marand, Malekan, Miyana, Heris, and Hashtrood.
East Azarbayjan central coordination locates in 38°04'36"N 46°16'48"E / 38.0766°N 46.2800°E .
Tabriz is the fourth largest city in Iran and the capital of East Azarbayjan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals, and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of the Eynali mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes gently down to the northern end of Lake Urmia, 60 km to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers the city is considered a summer resort.
The estimated population of the city is around 1,500,000 based on results of the Iranian census bureau. Tabriz is the fourth most populated city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, and Esfahan, while also being a major Iranian heavy industrial and manufacturing center. Some of these industries include automobile, machine tools, oil and petrochemical and cement production.
With a rich history, Tabriz contains many historical monuments, which repeated devastating earthquakes have substantially damaged. Monuments date back to the Ilkhanid, Safavid, and Qajar periods, with the large Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex being named as a World Heritage Site in 2010.
According to some sources, including Encyclop?dia Britannica, the name Tabriz derives from "tap-riz"from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosrov I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empireand changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh". However, this story has popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan, the Armenian historian in 14th century.
The majority of Tabriz residents are known as Azari Turks. Also, some minority groups of Persians, Armenians, Assyrians and Kurds also live in Tabriz.
Tabriz is twinned with the following cities: Baku of Azarbayjan, Gaza City of Gaza, Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam, Istanbul of Turkey, Kazan of Russia, Vienna of Austria and Gorazdeh of Bosnia.

1.2. Geography and Climate

The province covers an area of approximately 47,830 km², it has a population of around four million people. According to the latest divisions of the country in 1996, the counties of this province are:Ahar, Ajabshir, Bostan Abad, Bonab, Tabriz, Jolfa, Sarab, Shabestar, Kaleybar, Maragha, Marand, Malekan, Miyana, Heris, and Hashtrood. The historical city of Tabriz is the most important city of this province, culturally, politically, and commercially. The province has common borders with the current Republics of Azarbayjan, Armenia and Nakhchivan. A fine network of roads and railways connect East Azarbayjan to other parts of Iran and also to neighboring countries.
The highest peak of East Azarbayjan is Sahand Mountain at 3,722 m of elevation, lying south of Tabriz, whereas the lower lying areas are around Garmadooz (Ahar). The heights of the province may be classified into three sectors, namely: the Qara Daq Mountains, the Sahand and Bozqoosh Mountains, and the Qaflan Kooh Mountains.
Generally speaking, East Azarbayjan enjoys a cool, dry climate, being in the main a mountainous region. But the gentle breezes off the Caspian Sea have some influence on the climate of the low-lying areas. Temperatures run up to 8.9 °C in Tabriz, and 20 °C in Maraqeh, in the winter dropping to -10-15 °C at least (depending on how cold the overall year is) . The ideal seasons to visit this province are in the spring and summer months.
Tabriz has a semi-arid climate climate with regular seasons (K?ppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around 380 millimetres (15 in), a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 13oC. Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer
Due to appearance of modern industries especially chemical industries in west of the city, air pollution level increases continuously since second half of twentieth century. However according to the efforts by industries and new limiting environmental national code the level of industrial pollution decreased,yet still the reports are illustrating main reasons for air pollution as: vehicles and major factories like oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical factories. According to research, 558,167 tons of pollutants are produced everyday in Tabriz
Tabriz is located in northwest of Iran in East Azarbayjan province between Eynali and Sahand mountains in a fertile area in shore of Aji Riverand Ghuri River. The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history, the city has been devastated and rebuilt several times.

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